What UniversalCitation.Org is and why it is being formed


Publication: 2013-09-20


Given ... the continued reliance on print citations, and the restrictions that this places on open access to the law, it is necessary to act. Universalcitation.Org is being organized to fill the gap.


Name:Owen Ambur





  • Tom BruceConvener of UniversalCitation.Org - Cornell University

  • John JoergensenConvener of UniversalCitation.Org - Rutgers University - Camden

  • Bruce KennedyConvener of UniversalCitation.Org - University of Toledo

  • Peter MartinConvener of UniversalCitation.Org - Cornell University

  • American Bar AssociationIn the late 1990's, the American Bar Association, American Association of Law Libraries, and many others looked to the future of legal information and saw the need for change.

  • American Association of Law Libraries

  • U.S. CourtsAs the country and our courts shifted to a digital environment, they saw the need for a new way to refer to court decisions and other documents on which the law depends. With the potential for great increases in the availability of legal information, there needed to be a citation style that did not depend on the increasingly outdated print editions that used to be the basis of legal references.

  • American JurisdictionsAs of this date, several American jurisdictions have adopted a Universal Citation format, but most have not. There are a variety of reasons why courts have hesitated to adopt Universal Citation, but given its success as a citation form in the jurisdictions that have adopted it, and the ease with which it has been adopted in Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and elsewhere, its value and utility are hard to deny.

  • Canada

  • United Kingdom

  • Australia