Name:National Institutes of Health
NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation. The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary Federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research.
Helping to lead the way toward important medical discoveries that improve people’s health and save lives, NIH scientists investigate
ways to prevent disease as well as the causes, treatments, and even cures for common and rare diseases. Composed of 27 Institutes
and Centers, the NIH provides leadership and financial support to researchers in every state and throughout the world.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
- Office of the Director (OD): The Office of the Director is the central office at NIH for its 27 Institutes and Centers. The OD is responsible for setting
policy for NIH and for planning, managing, and coordinating the programs and activities of all the NIH components. OD's program
offices include the Office of AIDS Research and the Office of Research on Women's Health, among others.
- National Cancer Institute (NCI): Est. 1937 - NCI leads a national effort to eliminate the suffering and death due to cancer. Through basic and clinical biomedical
research and training, NCI conducts and supports research that will lead to a future in which we can prevent cancer before
it starts, identify cancers that do develop at the earliest stage, eliminate cancers through innovative treatment interventions,
and biologically control those cancers that we cannot eliminate so they become manageable, chronic diseases.
- National Eye Institute (NEI): Est. 1968 - NEI conducts and supports research that helps prevent and treat eye diseases and other disorders of vision. This
research leads to sight-saving treatments, reduces visual impairment and blindness, and improves the quality of life for people
of all ages. NEI-supported research has advanced our knowledge of how the eye functions in health and disease.
- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI): Est. 1948 - NHLBI provides leadership for a national program in diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood
resources; and sleep disorders. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's
Health Initiative. The Institute plans, conducts, fosters, and supports an integrated and coordinated program of basic research,
clinical investigations and trials, observational studies, and demonstration and education projects.
- National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI): Est. 1989 - NHGRI is devoted to advancing health through genome research. The Institute led NIH’s contribution to the Human
Genome Project, which was successfully completed in 2003 ahead of schedule and under budget. Building on the foundation laid
by the sequencing of the human genome, NHGRI’s work now encompasses a broad range of research aimed at expanding understanding
of human biology and improving human health. In addition, a critical part of NHGRI’s mission continues to be the study of
the ethical, legal and social implications of genome research.
- National Institute on Aging (NIA): Est. 1974 - NIA leads a national program of research on the biomedical, social, and behavioral aspects of the aging process;
the prevention of age-related diseases and disabilities; and the promotion of a better quality of life for all older Americans.
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): Est. 1970 - NIAAA conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems
to reduce the enormous health, social, and economic consequences of this disease.
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID): Est. 1948 - NIAID research strives to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent the myriad infectious, immunologic, and allergic
diseases that threaten millions of human lives.
- National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS): Est. 1986 - NIAMS supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases,
the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research, and the dissemination of information on research
progress in these diseases.
- National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB): Est. 2000 - NIBIB improves health by promoting fundamental discoveries, design and development, and translation and assessment
of technological capabilities in biomedical imaging and bioengineering, enabled by relevant areas of information science,
physics, chemistry, mathematics, materials science, and computer sciences.
- Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD): Est. 1962 - NICHD research on fertility, pregnancy, growth, development, and medical rehabilitation strives to ensure that
every child is born healthy and wanted and grows up free from disease and disability.
- National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD): Est. 1988 - NIDCD conducts and supports biomedical research and research training on normal mechanisms as well as diseases
and disorders of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language that affect 46 million Americans.
- National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR): Est. 1948 - NIDCR provides leadership for a national research program designed to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent
the infectious and inherited craniofacial-oral-dental diseases and disorders that compromise millions of human lives.
- National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK): Est. 1950 - NIDDK conducts and supports basic and applied research and provides leadership for a national program in diabetes,
endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. Several
of these diseases are among the leading causes of disability and death; all seriously affect the quality of life of those
who have them.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): Est. 1973 - NIDA leads the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction through support and
conduct of research across a broad range of disciplines and rapid and effective dissemination of results of that research
to improve drug abuse and addiction prevention, treatment, and policy.
- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS): Est. 1969 - NIEHS reduces the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental
exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual's health.
- National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS): Est. 1962 - NIGMS supports basic biomedical research that is not targeted to specific diseases. NIGMS funds studies on genes,
proteins, and cells, as well as on fundamental processes like communication within and between cells, how our bodies use energy,
and how we respond to medicines. The results of this research increase our understanding of life and lay the foundation for
advances in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. NIGMS also supports research training programs that produce the
next generation of biomedical scientists, and it has special programs to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue biomedical
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH): Est. 1949 - NIMH provides national leadership dedicated to understanding, treating, and preventing mental illnesses through
basic research on the brain and behavior, and through clinical, epidemiological, and services research.
- National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS): Est. 1950 - The mission of the NINDS is to reduce the burden of neurological diseases -- a burden borne by every age group,
every segment of society, and people all over the world. To accomplish this goal the NINDS supports and conducts research,
both basic and clinical, on the normal and diseased nervous system, fosters the training of investigators in the basic and
clinical neurosciences, and seeks better understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of neurological disorders.
- National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR): Est. 1986 - NINR supports clinical and basic research to establish a scientific basis for the care of individuals across the
life span--from the management of patients during illness and recovery to the reduction of risks for disease and disability;
the promotion of healthy lifestyles; the promotion of quality of life in those with chronic illness; and the care for individuals
at the end of life. This research may also include families within a community context, and it also focuses on the special
needs of at-risk and under-served populations, with an emphasis on health disparities.
- National Library of Medicine (NLM): Est. 1956 - NLM collects, organizes, and makes available biomedical science information to scientists, health professionals,
and the public. The Library's Web-based databases, including PubMed/Medline and MedlinePlus, are used extensively around the
world. NLM conducts and supports research in biomedical communications; creates information resources for molecular biology,
biotechnology, toxicology, and environmental health; and provides grant and contract support for training, medical library
resources, and biomedical informatics and communications research.
- Center for Information Technology (CIT): (formerly DCRT, OIRM, TCB) - Est. in 1964 - CIT incorporates the power of modern computers into the biomedical programs and
administrative procedures of the NIH by focusing on three primary activities: conducting-computational biosciences research,
developing computer systems, and providing computer facilities.
- Center for Scientific Review (CSR): Est. in 1946 - CSR is the focal point at NIH for the conduct of initial peer review, the foundation of the NIH grant and award
process. The Center carries out peer review of the majority of research and research training applications submitted to the
NIH. In addition, the Center serves as the central receipt point for all such Public Health Service (PHS) applications and
makes referrals to scientific review groups for scientific and technical merit review of applications and to funding components
for potential award. To this end, the Center develops and implements innovative, flexible ways to conduct referral and review
for all aspects of science.
- John E. Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences (FIC): Est. in 1968 - FIC promotes and supports scientific research and training internationally to reduce disparities in global
- National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM): Est. in 1999 - NCCAM is dedicated to exploring complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices in the context of rigorous
science; training CAM researchers and disseminating authoritative information.
- National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD): Est. in 1993 - The mission of NCMHD is to promote minority health and to lead, coordinate, support, and assess the NIH effort
to reduce and ultimately eliminate health disparities. In this effort NCMHD will conduct and support basic, clinical, social,
and behavioral research, promote research infrastructure and training, foster emerging programs, disseminate information,
and reach out to minority and other health disparity communities.
- National Center for Research Resources (NCRR): Est. in 1962 - NCRR provides laboratory scientists and clinical researchers with the environments and tools they need to understand,
detect, treat, and prevent a wide range of diseases. With this support, scientists make biomedical discoveries, translate
these findings to animal-based studies, and then apply them to patient-orientated research.
- NIH Clinical Center (CC): Est. in 1953 - CC is the clinical research facility of the National Institutes of Health. As a national resource, it provides
the patient care, services, and environment needed to initiate and support the highest quality conduct of and training in